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Methodology Strategic framework for the Medical Response and Public Health

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

For this research, methodology chapter will provide an understanding about basic research philosophy, research approach, data collection methods, and tools for data collection. This will be based on some fundamental things such as techniques for sampling and selection of participation for the research. Top custom assignment writing service UK

3.1 Research Objectives

  • To indicate the gaps and problems that are involved in the strategic framework for Oman
  • To present an effective comprehensive system in terms of providing proper management in the sectors of medical response and public health
  • To develop a strategic plan in order to deal with the medical response and the public health for Oman

3.2 Research Philosophy

Research philosophy plays a vital role in a research and allows researchers to use appropriate methods. The research philosophy is classified into three basic types, which are positivism, interpretive, and realism (Rossi et al., 2013). Positivism philosophy deals with scientific approaches and methods. It provides a descriptive way to test hypothesis, presented in a research. This philosophy is based on experiences and observations of researchers. Interpretive research philosophy gives an interpretation of research trends. It indicates movements of variables, which are mentioned in research (Ashforth& Mael, 2003). Social environment can be seen by using this interpretation, which is obtained from interpretive approach (Flyvbjerg et al., 2012).

Apart from these two research philosophies, realism philosophy is also a commonly used philosophy. This research philosophy is similar to positivism approach; this is because both of these approaches use scientific method for the research (Ali& Alshawi, 2004). However, the difference in between these philosophies is that realism approach uses element of reality, which is not used in the positivism approach (Blumberg et al., 2011). During the use of scientific approaches, realities and independent beliefs are considered to conduct a research (Berger& Luckmann, 2008). In this research, positivism approach will be used, which will provide an understanding about previous researches on the similar topic.

3.3 Research Design

Research design is used to explain that what method is essential for researches and how this research can be conducted. The Research design is not related to any particular method of collecting data that is it does not restricts usage of any particular type of data collection method . As per Stebbins (2001) research design can be referred as structure of an enquiry: it is a logical matter rather than a logistical one.

3.4 Research Approach

There are three basic research approaches, which are used for different kinds of investigation. These approaches are known as qualitative approach, the quantitative approach and the mix-method approach. The qualitative approach is a non-numeric approach, which mainly deals and collects data from previous researches. That is it incorporates data of previous researches (Green et al., 2012). The principle of this approach is that investigates previously scholar literature for information on relevant topic of research. As per Flick (2011), qualitative approach can be defined as an approach, which is based on analysing past trends and comparing it with new ones without accumulating any numeric data. Moreover, qualitative research approach has two main components, inductive and deductive approach. 

The inductive approach works other way around as it moves from specific observations to broader theories and generalisation. It collects relevant data as per the research topic as well as with the finding patterns in the data through analysis and then develops a theory from it. Deductive approach works follows a specific approach instead a general collection of data and is sometimes referred as top to down approach. In deductive approach, a researcher might start with thinking of theory about the topic of research. In other words, it starts with a social theory that is later tested to check compatibility with data. Moreover, that theory is narrowed down into more specific hypothesis for testing.

The Quantitative approach is based on numeric data. This approach consists of mathematical theories and provides statistical information (Deshpande& Rohit, 2001). This approach is beneficial for different researches of decisive analysis (Green et al., 2012). In other words, it offers authenticity in methodology and effective results of research (Gast& Ledford, 2014). The mix-method approach is based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches, in which numeric and non-numeric both types of data is included for analysis (Creswell, 2013). This is used in a specific situation, when there is a need to conduct an effective research (Gillian Symon, 2012). The concerned research will be based on quantitative approach. The reason of selecting this approach is that it will provide an effective outcome of the research, and the interpretation will be easy to understand. This will also help other researchers to conduct further researches in this filed.

3.5 Data Collection

The data is collected in three ways firstly by collecting primary data, primary data collection is the considered most appropriate source of data collection. This method includes questionnaires surveys and interviews. (Pathak, 2008). Primary data collection methods help in gathering required and relevant information for conducting a research.

Interviews and Questionnaires are main tools used in the primary data collection. Interviews include unstructured, Semi-Structured, and Structured interviews. The Unstructured interviews are in-depth interviews. This type of interview enables holistic understanding of interviewee’s situation and point of view (Elo& Kyngäs, 2008). Semi Structured interviews are the most common in which specific questions are asked but response is detailed. Moreover, it is usually used in a qualitative research (Dawson, 2002). While structured interviews are fixed questions, in which respondents have to tick boxes. It is used frequently, especially in market research (Dawson, 2002).

Questionnaires are comprised of closed ended, open ended and mixed questionnaire approach of data collection. The closed ended questionnaires are used in quantitative research for large sample to generate statistics (Dawson, 2002). While open ended questionnaire is mainly used in a qualitative research so that a brief account of response  are noted for purpose of  research and the mixed approach is blend of both closed and open ended questionnaires (Dawson, 2002) 

Secondary data collection method is associated with data, which has been observed, and analysed in previous researches. In this, data collection method, data is obtained from different books, journal articles, and reports (Kottner et al., 2011). Furthermore, mixed method is one in which researcher tends to base knowledge claims on pragmatic grounds. That is it includes both primary and secondary approach of data collection.

3.6 Data Analysis

The appropriate selection of method for data analysis helps to analyse data taken from previous literature. Qualitative as well as quantitative data analysis techniques will be analysed in this research.

3.7 Sampling

Sampling is a method of evaluating specific properties of selected population. This helps to fill questionnaire or conduct interviews for researches. There are two types of sampling, which are random and non-random sampling. When participants are selected for a research without considering difference, then sampling is called a random sampling. In this sampling techniques, all those individuals are selected, who are associated with society. In non-random sampling specific participants are selected to fill questionnaire. The individuals selected for this survey is both related and experienced in this field.

3.8 Ethical Considerations

The different ethical and professional issues adhere with this research includes:

3.8.1 Confidentiality

Data is collected from Internet yet confidentiality and protection of data always required to be protected. 

3.8.2 Plagiarism

In order to avoid the possibility of plagiarism, full and appropriate in-text referencing will be provided. The credit will be given to real authors whose concept, ideas, and findings have been used in the study to make conclusions.

 


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