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Literature Review Area of interest in Western journals

Chapter Three: Literature Review and Content Analysis

3.1 Introduction

This literature review aims to review, analyze and compare the 200 westerns journals addressing different aspects of project management practice in China. There are eight characteristics of Chinese project management, which are identified as key area of interest of western journals in Chinese project management practice. Therefore, the chapter has been divided into eight key areas of interest and the comparison of journals/books and articles are discussed under each key area of interest or characteristics of Chinese project management practice.

The key purpose of this literature review is to review, critically analyze, and compare the journals in terms of their approaches, key area of interest, basic concepts and theories, and most importantly the agreement and disagreement of authors on different key issues in the view of Chinese project management practice. In this regard, journals are compared based on their study area and key methodology of the study that is used to conduct the study. The key discussion of the literature review is used in the next conclusion chapter to signify the results of the study. Moreover, the chronological list is given in the appendix of the study composed of 200 western journals containing authors’ name, title of journals/books, publishing year, and key points of the study.

 3.2 Characteristics of Chinese Project Management Practice   

There are eight characteristics of Chinese project management practice identified, in which the western journals are more likely to be interested due to importance of these characteristics. The characteristics are leadership, law, culture, project management practice, economy and political system, investment opportunities and Chinese business philosophy. The next section of the chapter is the analysis and comparison of the 200 western journals in the context of Chinese project management practice.  

(1)  Law

However, law or legal system in China is the most important concern of foreign investors but western journals have not shown key interest in the law or legal aspect of the Chinese project management practice. There are only eight journals concerning the law out of 200 journals, this low numbers of studies dealing with the law is not a good indicator, as lack of research, and studies in the area of law in the Chinese project management can have negative impact on the foreign western businesses. The overview of the eight journals concerning the law and Chinese project management gives significant understanding about what the main concerns of the authors in the PMP in China, and the most interesting point found throughout the overview is that there are more Chinese authors discussing the legal affairs and legal complications in the PMP in China than Anglo-American. For assistance assignment help

 With regard to law in the project management practice, commercial and business law are the most focusing areas of the journals while the role of government is also discussed in the legal matters of project management practice in the China. However, both Chinese and Anglo-American authors addressed the law related issues yet there were significant differences in their approaches, method of study and conclusions. The key difference among all journals was based on the ethnic background of authors and their approaches including study methods in dealing with issues.

 In the book‘Doing business in China’, the author addressed the complicated commercial framework of the Chinese project management allowing little opportunity for the foreign businesses to understand and comply with the commercial law in China. The less considerable aspect about this study is that it did not wholly focus on the law as key issue for foreign investors in the project management practice but discussed the legal framework of China in the context of implications of the project management practice. The significant part of the book is that it focused on the every key area that is considered by the foreign investors and businesses when they have to enter into China for a business and used rich description for the analysis of the content.

Similarly, the book‘China law desk book: a legal guide for foreign-invested enterprises’ seemed to address the legal issues in the project management in the context as done by previous book but this study was a case study focusing on the legal aspects of project management in China for the foreign investors.  The case study approach increased the comprehensive understanding of legal problems in the project management practice. However, the study was composed of systematic knowledge-based study about the legal affairs involved in China concerning project management yet the study focused on how cross cultural differences can affect the investor in lack of compliance with the legal matters of project management.

Another book‘Foreign Investment in China:  Will the Anti Monopoly Law be a Barrier or a Facilitator?’ has taken different turn and focused on the condition of monopoly in China that widely affects the project management. However, study identified new anti monopoly law in China as worthwhile because anti monopoly law in China will encourage the foreign western investors to enter into Chinese business and have successful project management.  There was significant lack of wide horizon in the issues, as all Anglo-American authors were consistently focusing on the legal issues but they did not identify single industry or sector in relation to discuss the legal affairs of project management in specific industry in China. Moreover, the studies of Anglo-American authors consistently highlighted the weak legislation and lack of institutional protection in China.

On the other hand, the approach of Chinese authors concerning the law issues in the Chinese project management was partially similar to the concerns of the Anglo-American authors, as they majorly focused on highlighting the complex legal structure and system of China that negatively affects the business culture in the country. However, Chinese authors focused on the same issues yet their horizons for the issue was critical as they reached out other factors linked with the law, making the legal structure of the country more complex for foreign investors. In this regard, Ying Lin and Natalies Stoianoff in the‘Foreign Investment in China: The Cross-Cultural Dilemma’ emphasized on the needs for the foreign investment in China for the growth of better economy and analyzed the cross-cultural differences as to key, leading to complex legal structure in the county.  Moreover, Anyuan Yuan in‘Foreign Direct Investments in China– Practical Problems of Complying with China’s Company Law and Laws for Foreign-Invested Enterprises’ identified the core issues in the corporate law of China that significantly affects the interest of the foreign western investors in terms of investing in the key businesses of China such as constructions industry. This study has mainly focused on different industries in China in which foreign investors are more interested to do business while issue of compliance with company law of China is the major barrier.

Besides the study approach, another key aspect of these studies was method used for the study as methodology plays significant role in determining the authenticity of the content. It is found that both Anglo-American and Chinese authors used descriptive and content analysis approach based on the information available about the issues. However, both authors were more critical about their approaches but Chinese authors showed diverse approaches in dealing with the legal issues regarding project management practice in China. 

(2) Investment Opportunities

The project management practice in China has also been the major concern of the western journals, as the growing economy of China is the appealing factor for foreign western investors to invest in the country. It is found that due to growing interest of investors, project management has been promoted in the country and this has led numbers of researchers to identify the investment opportunities offered in the project management practice of China. With reference to investment opportunities in the project management in China, fourteen journals and books have focused on different project management practices as factor to satisfy the foreign investors in terms of successful project management. The overview of the journals indicates more interest of Anglo-American authors in the investment opportunity offered by project management practice in China than Chinese authors and major concern of both authors is different.

However, Anglo-American authors focused on the financial aspects of the issue such as role of investment banking in Chinese in the success and failure of project management. In this respect, K. Thomas Liaw in the journal‘Investment banking and investment opportunities in China: a comprehensive guide for finance professionals’ analyzed the key characteristics of financial structure in China leading to success of project management and creating more investment opportunities for investors. However, the main concern of the author is to evaluate the investment opportunities in the project management practice of China, yet author adopted literature analysis to link the present financial conditions of investment opportunities with the past monopolistic trend, which leads to the comparison between past and present trend of investment in the project management practice.

The journal of Evi Hartmann, Edda Feisel, and Holger Schober named‘Talent management of western MNCs in China: Balancing global integration and local responsiveness’ focused on the presence of the numbers of western enterprises in China. The key findings of the study covered the issue regarding challenges faced by western multinational organizations to operate their businesses in China. The conclusion of the study was based on enriched data because it analyzed three different western multinational organizations operating in China and conducted the research to find the current opportunities available to them. Other study‘When in China’ focused on the different aspects of the project management practices in China therefore the study could not provide much research on the investment opportunities present in the Chinese business environment but key issues regarding investment opportunity was identified similar to previous study that focused on the factors appealing the western foreign investors to invest. 

In analyzing the approach of Chinese author about dealing with same issue, the main difference identified was based on the approach.  In the journal‘Development strategies for Chinese design institutes’ by Tianji Xu, N. J. Smith, D. A. Bower, and A. S. Chew, the Chinese authors mainly focused on the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities in the design institutes that could have both positive as well as negative effects on the financial judgment of the foreign investors. However, the study used much of the data using World Trade Organization, yet the comprehensiveness of the study was based on the approach adopted to analyze the issue. Moreover, the authors also considered other factors that influence the investment decision as well as opportunity in the Chinese project management. 

Another study by Chinese author‘Research on Joint Ventures in China: Progress and Prognosis’ by Fan Ying made an empirical study on the foreign businesses such as joint ventures and their impacts on the project management practice in China. The study mainly focused on the joint venture in China that emerged in the result of growing investment opportunities in the key businesses areas. Comparatively to western authors, Chinese authors much focused on the role of political and legal factors in the successful project management. On the other hand, western journals studied only economic aspect of the project management where successful project management leads to high economic growth rate.

Another study‘Gauging Investor Satisfaction’ discussed the satisfaction as key competency to have increased investment opportunity and measured different key aspects of business environment to find the satisfaction of investors in the Chinese project management. The study‘Organizational Dynamics of Market Transition: Hybrid Forms’ highlighted the significance of hybrid forms in the present market transitions and examined the emergence of marketized organizations in China. Since, market transition has great influence on the project management in any organization, the study considered the role of marketized organization, which are likely to increase the success of the project management practice in China. On the other hand, study‘Identifying Key Factors for Successful Joint Venture in China’ adopted the analytic hierarchy process to find the business opportunities in China. Based on this study, the main difference found between Anglo-American and Chinese authors is that Anglo-American authors are more concerned about the factors of successful project management in China and its effects on investment opportunities. Chinese authors, on the other hand, focused on the diverse factors involved in the project management and key area of interest of foreign business providing them great opportunity for investment. 

(3)  Culture

The culture has been identified as the key area of interest of the western journals in the Chinese project management practice, as most of their researches are based on it. Overall, there are almost 45 journals conducted on culture, out of which 31 are western authors and the rest are Chinese authors. They both have discussed Chinese culture from various aspects supporting project development. Rob Leslie-Carter, a western author in his journal focused on a specific area of culture i.e. national swimming centre for Olympic Games in Beijing. Here swimming center is considered of having great importance for author because author did not discuss any ordinary swimming centre but discussed the importance of Beijing’s national swimming centre, which was a part of Olympic Games; an extra ordinary international event focusing summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in various competitions. He conducted a thorough case study for this whereas a Chinese author Ling F.Y.Y in his book, foreign firms’ strategic and project management practices in China focused on literature review for discussing construction management in China. Both authors focused on the two highlighted points of Chinese culture but Rob Leslie-Carter’s writing is considered to be more strengthened because it had a strong case study, which can evaluate the current situation more promptly whereas Ling F.Y.Y’s study based on literature review, which could not elaborate the current situation. Mark E. Schaub also had a descriptive case study on different cultural aspects in China including art of law: chronicling deals, disasters, greed, and stupidity in his book that went very helpful for the academic western readers. Florence Y.Y. Ling and Shan Li Foreign focused on different local architectural, engineering, designing and construction companies in China. Jagdeep Singh Chhokar gave a comparative analysis on cultural leadership in China and along the world. In his book, he descriptively explained culture globally. His book is considered very strong, as it shows the different cultural values internationally to make aware of the cultural difference between the western countries and China. Moreover, Dirk Morschett, Hanna Schramm-Klein has given an empirical analysis on strategic international management focusing the role of culture in progress development in China whereas Jone L. Pearce took an interview in China discussing the personal interactions in society. By comparing the above two researches, it can be concluded that research based on empirical analysis went much successful than other studies. Moreover, I. S.Baird, M. A. Lyles, and R. Wharton wrote a book determining the key differences between the Chinese and American managers regarding their joint ventures to improve the cultural aspects of project development among China and different western countries. His journal influenced the economic relations, appreciated their joint ventures whereas a Chinese author, such as Yu Jen Hsiao did a comparative analysis on Taiwanese managers and Chinese managers related to the effectiveness of leading change found. Taiwanese managers had issues in implementing change in international joint venture with China and it is due to Chinese culture difference with Taiwan culture. Furthermore, Sana Louie, a western journalist, gave a thorough and descriptive analysis on cross-culture use of measurements focusing on the goal of health and care in culture perspective. Since, health and care is one of the major sectors of a society and it greatly influences the culture that is why Sana research showed a great impact on the cultural development of China. Roger Strange, a western author had taken a case study on foreign investors' experience of project management in China, as many foreign investors related to various countries are investing in China, so this book provides great success stories and beneficial lessons from the experiences of other investors.

A Chinese author, Ping Chen focused on Chinese project management practices that had a strong analysis, examining the transplant of western project management standards into Chinese context. Chinese author, Pingli Li and Guliang Tang in their book,‘Performance measurement design within its organizational context—Evidence from China’ discussed the cultural performance measurement system the large Chinese state-owned enterprise and covered a vast area of Chinese cultural development. Similarly, Shuakat Ali, Weo Guo   discussed the managerial implications for western business wish to exploit in China whereas, Wang X, Liu L. wrote a content analysis on cultural barriers and Wang X, Liu L had made stronger impact as compare to Shuakat Ali, Weo Guo managerial applications. Jan Selmer conducted content analysis on China, on attracting a massive amount of foreign investment and international trade recently. The crucial issue identified is different managerial practices in China and western countries in its comparison. Stawicki, J had a content analysis on world progress focusing the Chinese culture, philosophy and management approach and provided readers with a strong research.

(4) Leadership

Western journals are mostly identified to be interested in leadership in the Chinese project management. There are number of well conventional standards of leadership that are recognized as the chief roles played by China’s project management in its success. In this analysis, seven western journals are found, which are written on“Leadership”. Out of seven, two are comprised on comparative study, furthermore, two are on literature reviews, content analyses and the remaining two journals are on case studies carried on the leadership in project management practice in China.

Western journals on Chinese projects managements’ leadership is written in diverse research methods such as literature review, comparative study, and case study. The first journal is‘Cross Cultural Leadership’ by Ben Bryant& Karsten Jonsen, which endeavors to understand how individuals of diverse cultures and ethnicities interact with each other in China affecting the project management practice. It further describes most important advances and promising models in the research domain over the last several years.  In this regard, it is found that the western journal clearly explains the comparative study of Asian countries including China. Another western journal describes the comparative study of international project management leadership of China in multifaceted and complex environment. It highlights the role of project management in a difficult and complicated environment, as Chinese leaders play a foremost role in this concern as compare to other research methods.

One of the‘content analyses’ journal written by Frank Gallo points up the key areas of Chinese leadership practices in project management including teamwork, corporation, decision making and employees’ motivation and enthusiasm. These studies clearly indicate that the fundamental and essential skills are needed to make project management system firm and effective in the context of Chinese project management. Therefore, mostly Chinese authors concluded that in China, it should be considered as a part of every project management team to get best out of something, globally. Literature reviews on“Project Management” and“The one-page project manager for IT projects: communicate and manage any project with a single sheet of paper” was aimed at locating the national and international study and documentary proof relating to leadership in China.

However, case study is one of the most effective research methods, as it is a thorough and detailed study of any subject matter or an in depth study of any topic, the‘Leadership in PMP in China’ and‘Practice of Leadership in Chinese PMP’ are fundamentally recognized as case studies.  These studies have elucidated and clarified how Chinese Project Management practices the leadership skill.

As, it is already notified in the above paragraphs that  the literature review is a research method which is used in the early times in order to find out the information in a meticulous subject area in a definite time period, whereas case study is the most useful and valuable method in recognizing the Chinese project management system. Through the studies, it is found that in China, it is intended to imitate real life to exercise all the identified particulars to make the best choice possible.  Usually Chinese leadership in the early years has been linked with individual proficiency characteristics and individual qualities in the leader. But, the  further recent view of leadership is that it is not an isolated doings, however it is an activity in which range of people contribute to effectual leadership, so Chinese leadership system is also trying to work on it in order to make their leadership in project management more effective. Chinese project management in construction has adopted a systems approach to organization analysis and design from the initial concept of the project concerning power and leadership. Project management in construction adopts a systems approach to organization’s analysis and design from the initial concept of the project. The studies have been found discussing the innovative ideas such as pandemonium and complexity theory are inspected in the perspective of construction project management, moreover aspect of organization theory, such as trust and hierarchy theory. Therefore, it can be highlighted, after studying the comparative studies of Chinese project management in western journals named as“International Project Management: Leadership in Complex Environments” that flourishing and thriving leadership behavior of today is more culturally diverse labor force, as it is one of the imperative challenges organizations face. Technology, knowledge and expertise  has compelled this demographically mixed workforce towards harmony in order to tie together the varied talents of groups as to improve and enhance the productivity and growth, additionally to bring more creativity and originality at work place.

(5) Project Management Practice (PMP)

In 200 western journals on project management, it has been identified that 108 journals have discussed the project management practices and the impact of effective management practices, and foreign partners in China. Furthermore, it has also been identified that among 108 journals of project management practices, Anglo American authors have written sixty-five journals and remaining Chinese authors write forty-three articles. However, the Anglo American and Chinese authors are fundamentally focusing on the importance of project management practices within China, yet they have adopted different approaches.

The Anglo Americans have mainly discussed the project management practices within China in their western journal and demonstrated that the project management practices within china is beneficial since, China is a large country in which foreign investor are more interested to enter. According to Selmer, more than eighty-thousand western foreign joint ventures are working in China and regularly interacting with Chinese counterparts. Conversely, various Chinese authors also observed the project management practices within China and described the diversity in article. They provided strong support to the project management practice in China and determined that these practices are contemporary since, it is at beginning stage; therefore, it requires much learning and localization. They also discussed about the impact of such practices within China and throughout the world.

Furthermore, Yangk, Tummala and Chen illustrated that project management practice has gained increasing recognition as a significant discipline among management academics in China. According to Americans authors, various business professor and management educators are working in People Republic of China and developing understanding regarding cultural differences and focusing toward the cross culture management education in that nation.  Wan in his article stated that China's State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) joined with Project Management Institute (PMI) of the USA to launch Project Management Practices training and examination in China and today, nearly one million people are attending this program.

Additionally, the articles also provide information regarding the practices of government of China and westerns countries toward improving the management practices and promoting the management program in order to provide effective project management practices. Moreover, these journals also described the practices of Chinese partners and western project stakeholder toward minimizing the cultural clash and dealing with Chinese culture within project management practices effectively because the culture greatly influences the project management practices.  

Therefore, most of the American and Chinese journals are relevant and both mostly focused on the effective project management practices within China among Chinese partners and western project stakeholder. In contrast, both journals of Anglo Americans and Chinese authors have significant strengths and weakness. In the article‘The success model of project management in the Chinese business environment’ the Anglo Americans authors, including Jiang, Koster and Pretorius stated that China is becoming a world-sized project base and this is more striking to international companies but the Chinese project management practices are more complicated and unpredictable. However, they did not clarify how china is becoming world-sized project base, how and why their project management practices are complicated and unpredictable. Same as, many other articles have not entirely described the effective practices that is needed to implement but they very clearly focus on the Chinese partners and western project stakeholder toward minimizing the cultural clash and the way by which they deal with Chinese culture. 

The most positive thing is that the journals of Anglo Americans and Chinese authors thoroughly described the methods of managing business operation across cultural boundaries and described the management issues including co-operation, negotiation, trustworthiness and importance of being well prepared. In contrast, the way of implementing business operations across the culture boundaries and the method of solving above project management issues are not thoroughly described in the western journal of project management practices.  

Another strength of the articles is that the article consists of future strategies including natural disasters, health reform, and many other social and political strategies. Such as, in the article‘Disaster Management in China and Taiwan: Models, Policies, and Programs for Social Recovery’ the author‘Ngoh Tiong Tan’ determined the need of strategic planning and policy for disaster management practices and social recovery. 

(6)  Economy

Western authors have greatly focused on the economic perspective of Chinese project management and it is identified as the key areas of interest in Chinese project management in western journals.  Moreover, many of the western researches identified economy as the major component of the Chinese effective project implementation.  Among 200 western journals concerning about characteristics of the Chinese project management, thirty-one journals were concerning the economy characteristic of Chinese project management.

However, among two hundred westerns journal articles the total number of Chinese authors that have put focus on the economic characteristic of Chinese project management were eighteen and twenty-five were Anglo Americans.  The western journals have put great emphasis on major economic developments of china and demonstrated the practices of effective project management of Chinese that enhanced the economic condition of the country.  The western journals have mainly focused on the concerns and opportunities of the large scale building projects in China, risk assessment practices of Chinese construction projects, and how they have influenced the Chinese economic condition. 

Furthermore, the western journals have highlighted influence of values on Chinese economy derived from the Confucianism on Chinese project management practices.  The western journals also examined the typical model of Chinese project management and its overall economic growth.  Moreover, they also identified the economic factor of some major development projects that were currently implemented in China.  Moreover, western journals also evaluated the relevance and effectives of bank assistance in China as well as influenced of globalization, privatization, and free market economy on Chinese project management.  Furthermore, western journal have  analyzed the economic policy of China as well as identified that economy of China has grown swiftly over the past few decades and basic change is from the complete reliance on state owned and collective enterprise to a mixed economy.

The Chinese authors mainly focused on the economic development of the Chinese projects due to effective Chinese project management practices while Anglo Americans authors were more interested to examine the financial performance and economic stability of the Chinese projects.  In‘China: an evaluation of World Bank assistance’ an Anglo-American author Gene Tidrick have analyzed the significance and effectiveness of Bank Assistance to China in the period of 1990s however, Chinese author Zhang in the journal‘What attracts foreign multinational corporations to China?  Contemporary Economic Policy’ has discussed the economic policies of China and its impact on Chinese project management practices.  Moreover, Anglo-American author Christopher A. McNally in‘China's emergent political economy: capitalism in the dragon's lair’ illustrated that China is rising a distinctive shape of capitalism by combining elements rooted in Chinese history.  However, Chinese author Ke Ma Jun Li, have demonstrated the actual operational and economic status of Chinese business activities in the‘China Business’.

In the western journal, article‘Economic Liberalization and Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries: Japanese Investments in India and China’ the Anglo American authors Anand Jaideep and Delios Andrew have provided an in-depth illustration on the impact of globalization, privatization and free market economy on the economic condition of Chinese business and  its project management practices.  However, in the western journal article‘Research on Joint Ventures in China: Progress and Prognosis’ the author Fan Ying did not review the published studies effectively in the area of international joint venture in China.  Moreover, less research were conducted to evaluate the economic changes in the Chinese business environment as well as its influence on international joint ventures as the external environment considering the initial configuration as well as feasibility of a joint venture.

In the journal‘Construction Management and Economics’ the authors‘Lam Yaw Thim and Chen Zonggui’ did not elaborate deeply the impact of construction project management on the economics of China and how China is getting benefited through its effective project management practices within construction industry.  However, in‘The Project Management Consultants in Chinese Construction Industry - The Roles and Responsibilities’ the authors Jian Zuo and Tony Y.F. Ma have profoundly examined the implementation of project management in construction industry of China quite effectively that has given deeper understanding of the Chinese project management practices and how they have influenced the economic condition of China.

The western journal have significantly highlighted the economic perspective of Chinese project management from which international organizations can be benefited from the Chinese business and project management practices.  Moreover, western journals have effectively determined the reshaping of global market for offshore IT service within project management in China and its economic success.  It is also identified that Chinese companies favor more professionally managed funds in China than direct investment in stock during negative global market conditions. Moreover, the western journals concerning the economic characteristic of Chinese project management have identified that China has not only turned out to be the significant host of foreign direct investment but also a noteworthy source of foreign direct investment.

(7)  Political System

There are numerous western journals discussing the vital characteristics of project management in China and one of the most important characteristics is political system. In most general terms, fifteen western articles or books have been found with‘politics’ as a key area of interest in Chinese project management. Either Chinese authors or Anglo-American authors write these articles or books.

 It has been identified by the authors of‘Using Social Network Strategy to Manage Construction Projects in China’ that the foreign organizations working in architectural, engineering, and construction sectors do not utilize the political resource available. However,‘Performance measurement design within its organizational context– Evidence from China’ is illustrating the Chinese political perceptions with political constraints, which acts as the barriers to change. It is also identified that the political constraint positively influences the performance measurement system of project management.

The authors of“Risk assessment for construction joint ventures in China” have identified the political risks involved in the project management. The most important risks discussed include the increasing costs because of changes in policies, loss incurred due to corruption, political changes, and late approvals by bureaucracy.

However, the“Dispute resolution management for international construction projects in China” identifies the characteristics of international projects in China within the context of its political system. On the other hand,“Executive development in China: is there any in a Western sense?” highlights the importance of foreign direct investment and political changes as the major concerns of influencing the Chinese management practices. It can also be said that this article is illustrating the most traditional rather than modern practices of managing projects. 

More generally,“The Chinese cultural system: Implications for cross-cultural management” examines the operations of U.S based organizations in China. This book is also discussing the necessary forces that influence the business practices of China within US organizations. Furthermore,“China’s water warriors: citizen action and policy change” is highlighting the indifference and repression by the opponents of large-scale projects in the context of political system of China.  The authors of this article or book are illustrating that the political system of China possess sufficient involvement in large-scale projects such as dams projects.

The engrossment of political system in project management can also be viewed in the case study of‘Three Gorges dam’ highlighted in the article or book“Environment and Resettlement politics in China: the Three Gorges Project”. This article or book provided that along with social and economic factors, the political factors acts as the fundamental factor of largest development projects. Thus, it can be said that“The Chinese cultural system” failed to identify this aspect of political involvement in project management.

“Community participation in China: issues and processes for capacity building” provides the identification of constraints and capacity building as a necessary approaches for implementation in China. The authors of this article illustrate that the community participation in poor villages or rural areas of China strengthens the political system. It is a content analysis and the authors do not provide validity of data and results.

“Identifying Key Risks in Construction Projects: Life Cycle and Stakeholder Perspectives” provides the nature of different risks and the authors have also identified the nature of risks related to political system.  The authors intended to provide the measures to overcome the risks identified for project management. However, this article does not provide any strong evidence of overcoming the risks identified in managing the projects.

Moreover, the authors of“Research on Joint Ventures in China: progress and prognosis” specified that the political differences between the foreign and Chinese environment are major causes of complex structure for joint ventures. This article illustrates that political factors contribute to the success and failure of the projects under joint ventures in China. On the contrary,“The Environment for American Business Ventures in the People's Republic of China” specifically highlights the environment available mostly by the American business ventures in China. It further examines the most appropriate environment for the ventures of US based businesses in China. 

In“Direct investment and joint ventures in China”, the authors discussed the role played by political environments in successful initiation and implementation of joint ventures in China. The authors however, did not focus on presenting ways to overcome possible issues identical to that of previous articles discussed above. Additionally, the“International Joint Venture’s problems in China: risks and remedies” illustrates various issues caused by joint ventures in China. The authors further identifies the political differences between Chinese and foreign environments of parent companies. On the other hand, authors of“Organizational dynamics of market transition: hybrid forms, property rights, and mixed economy in China” illustrates the implementation of dynamic model of market transitions in the context of political system. Moreover, the involvement of political system is observed as the major element for managing the projects in China. 

The authors of above mentioned articles or books provide the fact that the political system plays vital role in project management in China. However, it has been observed that the Chinese authors mostly focus on managing the risks of projects related to political system in different sectors of China, whereas, the Anglo-American authors mostly focus on the constraints and barriers faced by the foreign organizations within China. 

(8) Chinese Business Philosophy

There are numerous western journals discussing the vital characteristics of project management in China and one of the most important characteristics is Chinese business philosophy. In most general terms, eighteen western articles or books have been found with‘business philosophy’ as a key area of interest in Chinese project management. Either Chinese authors or Anglo-American authors write these articles or books.

In“An empirical analysis of project management in selected industrial area in the People’s Republic of China”, the authors selected the professionals of Chinese project management to identify and examine the practices managing projects. This article illustrates the Chinese business philosophy to provide better understanding of Chinese project management. 

The article or book“Managing complex IT projects in China: the cultural lessons learned” provide levels of diversifying the business practices along with other significant factors for developing the large-scale projects in China. On the other hand, the authors of“New direction in project management” provide the basis of predicting the evolution of project management.  Moreover,“Dispute resolution management for international construction projects in China” illustrates the business philosophy adopted by foreign, architectural, engineering, and construction firms in China. It can be said that these articles or books provides the business philosophy as the major element of managing projects in the environment of China.

Moreover,“Cultural Barriers to the use of western project management in Chinese enterprises: some empirical evidence from Yunnan Province” identifies the business philosophy implemented by the Chinese organizations working in China.  The authors of“The Chinese cultural system: implications for cross-cultural management” illustrates the essence of information possess by the western organizations regarding the underlying forces related to business practices of China. The author discusses the main aspects of Chinese business philosophy, whereas, the authors of“Foreign companies and Chinese workers: employee motivation in the People’s Republic of China” highlights that the western practices of project management are not implemented and practiced in the context of Chinese business environment.

      In“Source code China: the new global hub of IT outsourcing” provides the project management of global software industry along with China. The authors significantly discussed the transformation of global market for offshore services of IT in China. Furthermore, the authors of“How culture-sensitive is project management? A comparison of Chinese and western project manager’s conceptions” examines the transplantation of western standards of project management into the context of China so that the companies can understand the business philosophy of China.

  “The environment for American Business Ventures in the People’s Republic of China” provides the examination of suitable environment for ventures of American businesses in China while considering the element of business philosophy for the ventures of American businesses in China. Moreover,“Direct investment and joint ventures in China” illustrates the business philosophy of China by identifying the influence of joint ventures and foreign investment in China. On the contrary,“Gauging investor satisfaction” illustrates the satisfaction of investor by implementing various methods by understanding the Chinese business philosophy.

Additionally, the authors of“Why does China receive so much foreign direct investment?” identify the Chinese business philosophy as the main element and cause for receiving FDI in Chinese projects. The journal article“Do Sino– Foreign Joint Ventures create shareholder value for Chinese partners?” provide the business philosophy to examine the stock price reactions of Chinese partners and their influence on the projects. Similarly,“Organizational dynamics of market transition: Hybrid forms, property rights, and mixed economy in China” specifies the examination of implementing the dynamic model of market transition in China by identifying the Chinese business philosophy within organizations.

The article“New trends in China’s foreign investment strategy” discusses the global implication of new investments in the organizations while identifying the business philosophy of China, whereas,“Technology transfer to China through Foreign Direct Investment” discusses the current issues in transferring  technology into China through FDI and Chinese business philosophy as the main element. The article“Guanxi and organizational dynamics: organizational networking in Chinese firms” provides the influence of Guanxi on the performance of Chinese firms along with the element of Chinese business philosophy.

The Anglo-American authors are observed with contradictory perceptions to that of Chinese authors. The Anglo-American authors and Chinese authors specifically highlight the business philosophy of China while highlighting the impacts and influences of philosophies on the organizations. The authors significantly provide the better understanding of Chinese business philosophies for the organizations working in China. 

3.3 Integrant Data Analysis of Western Journals based on Chinese Project Management Characteristics

 

Publishing Period

Law

Investment opportunities

Culture

Leadership

Project Management Practice PMP

Economy

Political System

Chinese Business Philosophy

1980-1985

0

0

2

1

1

1

0

0

1986-1990

0

3

1

0

8

1

0

0

1991-1995

1

3

1

1

2

1

0

0

1996-2000

3

15

8

2

10

7

2

0

2001-2005

2

18

12

3

17

3

2

0

2006-2011

3

18

16

11

33

7

6

6

 
 

3.3 Conclusion

This literature review identified eight key areas of interest by analyzing the 200 western journals and compared the journals based on their literature, method and approaches. Since the chapter was divided into eight different sections, each section considering the key area of interest and characteristics of Chinese project management practice. It is found that eight key areas of interest in western journals in the Chinese project management are law, culture, political system, economy, project management practice, leadership, investment opportunity and Chinese business philosophy. The key findings of the chapter are based on the analysis and comparison between journals of Chinese and Anglo-American authors. There is great diversity in the approach of project management practice in western as well as Chinese authors, as western authors are more influenced by the western project management theories and concepts while Chinese authors employ partially different approach from western authors based on their critical difference in practice of project management in China.

Besides, there are specific key areas of interest for western journals such as western journals are more interested in the project management practices, investment opportunities offered in the project management practices, Chinese business philosophy and leadership in the project management practice in China. Chinese authors, on the other hand are identified to discuss the culture, law and political system and economy as the key area of interest.  Thus, the main findings of the chapter can be concluded based on the similarities between authors about the key concepts and theories but their approach to explain and elaborate the issues is different.

The next chapter of the paper is discussion, which is given based on the literature review, content analysis, evaluation, comparison of the journals and integrant data analysis. The discussion restates the aims and objectives of the study highlighting the main findings of the paper by extracting them from literature view together with integrant data analysis presented in literature review chapter. Moreover, characteristics of Chinese project management are identified and recommendations are given to reach out the result and findings of the study.

 


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